Control Outcomes Among Patients with A Disease


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In a case-control study the prevalence of exposure to a potential risk factor(s) is compared between cases and controls. A major characteristic of case-control studies is that data on potential risk factors are collected retrospectively and as a result may give rise to bias. Case control studies are observational because no intervention is attempted, and no attempt is made to alter the course of the disease. The goal is to retrospectively determine the exposure to the risk factor of interest from each of the two groups of individuals cases and controls. These studies are designed to estimate odds.

Case-Control studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive when compared with cohort studies (prospective). It is useful to study rare outcomes and outcomes with long latent periods. It is also useful to study multiple exposures in the same outcome. Case-control studies are useful to study the association of risk factors and outcomes in outbreak investigations. The case-control studies are also prone to certain biasesIn general, individuals may not be able to recall all exposures accurately. Furthermore, cases are more likely to remember detailed exposure history (particularly behaviors such as dietary habits) compared with controls – particularly population-based controls. This may lead to recall bias If the cases and controls are not selected similarly from the study base, then it will lead to selection bias (Setia, 2016).