Initial Discussion- Wk 5
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Diabetes is primarily a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. In the United States, diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder and the 7th leading cause of death by disease (Rosenthal, L.D. & Burchum, J.R., 2021).
Type 1 diabetes mellitus generally develops during childhood or adolescence. Symptom onset is relatively abrupt. Primary defect in Type 1 diabetes is destruction of pancreatic cells (Rosenthal, L.D. & Burchum, J.R., 2021). The inadequate production of insulin leads to an increase in blood sugar levels.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus symptoms usually result from a combination of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Insulin is still produced in Type 2 diabetes; however, the release of insulin is delayed (Rosenthal, L.D. & Burchum, J.R., 2021). The body does not respond to the insulin, the glucose in the blood stream cannot be pushed into cells for energy. This results in fatigue and elevated blood sugar levels.
Gestational diabetes is diagnosed during pregnancy. Just like other types of diabetes, this form affects how cells use glucose. Women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes are at high risk of developing DM type 2 later in life.
Juvenile diabetes previously called Type 1 diabetes is when the pancreas does not make insulin. Without insulin too much glucose stays in the blood. Elevation of blood sugar is seen in young children usually around the age of 6 with juvenile diabetes (Rosenthal, L.D. & Burchum, J.R., 2021).
Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than other types of diabetes. Treatment is centered around dietary modifications, exercise and medication (Rosenthal, L.D. & Burchum, J.R., 2021). Biguanides are the first line of treatment for type 2 diabetes, they work by reducing the production of glucose that occurs during digestion (Understanding Metformin for Diabetes, n.d.) For example Metformin decreases glucose production by the liver and increases tissue response to insulin. Metformin is typically started immediately after diagnosis; it is taken by mouth usually 1-3 times daily with meals. Drink plenty of fluids while taking this medication and it should be used at the same time each day (Metformin Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing – Webmd, n.d.).
Other dietary modifications are eating low carbohydrate foods, avoiding fast foods, concentrated sugars, and alcohol (Rosenthal, L.D. & Burchum, J.R., 2021). Short-term effects of treatment can include sudden drops in blood sugar levels and long-term effects include neuropathy, retinopathy, risk of cardiovascular diseases, stroke and loss of kidney function (Rosenthal, L.D. & Burchum, J.R., 2021).