Discussion 2: PTSD and Trauma
A terrible feature about remembering is the inability to forget. For many in the military and armed forces, this inability to forget traps them with a particular feeling associated with a particular moment. As the rules of war are uncompromising, the traumatic scars, both physical and emotional, hold power in the lives of those who have faced war. Over the years, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses have expanded to include victims of rape, environmental disasters, or any other event producing insurmountable and atypical levels of stress for an individual. When exceptionally stressful and atypical events occur in life, it is natural to feel discomfort or even trauma in response to the situation. Does everyone who experiences trauma become diagnosed with PTSD?
For this Discussion, consider whether the diagnosis of trauma always leads to the development of PTSD. If not diagnosed with PTSD, think about what alternative diagnoses might be possible for a client.
With these thoughts in mind:
Post by Day 4 a brief explanation of whether experiences of trauma always lead to the development of PTSD and explain why or why not. Then explain possible alternative client diagnoses.
Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources and current literature.
Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus. Readings
· American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
o Anxiety Disorders
o Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders
o Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
· Paris, J. (2015). The intelligent clinician’s guide to the DSM-5 (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from the Walden Library.
o Chapter 11, Anxiety Disorders, Trauma, and the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum
· Armour, C., Elklit, A., & Shevlin, M. (2013). The latent structure of acute stress disorder: A posttraumatic stress disorder approach. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, And Policy, 5(1), 18–25. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
· Koffel, E., Polusny, M., Arbisi, P., & Erbes, C. (2012). A preliminary investigation of the new and revised symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in DSM-5. Depression And Anxiety, 29(8), 731–738. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
· Lent, R. W. (2004). Toward a unifying theoretical and practical perspective on well-being and psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(4), 482–509. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
· Santiago, P. N., Ursano, R. J., Gray, C. L., Pynoos, R. S., Spiegel, D., Lewis-Fernandez, R., & … Fullerton, C. S. (2013). A systematic review of PTSD prevalence and trajectories in DSM-5 defined trauma exposed populations: Intentional and non-intentional traumatic events. Plos ONE, 8(4), 1–5. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Lopez, S. J., & Edwards, L. M. (2008). The interface of counseling psychology and positive psychology: Assessing and promoting strengths. In S. D. Brown, & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (4th ed., pp. 86–99). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Mataix-Cols, D., & Pertusa, A. (2012). Annual Research Review: Hoarding disorder: potential benefits and pitfalls of a new mental disorder. Journal Of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 53(5), 608–618. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. Mohlman, J., Bryant, C., Lenze, E. J., Stanley, M. A., Gum, A., Flint, A., & … Craske, M. G. (2012). Improving recognition of late life anxiety disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition: observations and recommendations of the Advisory Committee to the Lifespan Disorders Work Group. International Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(6), 549–556. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. O’Connor, J., Fell, M., & Fuller, R. (2010). Escaping, forgetting and revisiting the scene: The post-traumatic compulsion to repeat in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 23(1), pp. 55–66. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. Snowdon, J., Pertusa, A., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2012). On hoarding and squalor: A few considerations for DSM-5. Depression And Anxiety, 29(5), 417–424. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. Timpano, K. R., Broman-Fulks, J. J., Glaesmer, H., Exner, C., Rief, W., Olatunji, B. O., & … Schmidt, N. B. (2013). A taxometric exploration of the latent structure of hoarding. Psychological Assessment, 25(1), 194–203. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.