1. A child is asked to describe what a flower looks like. Even without a flower present, the child is able to describe it adequately. But, when the child is asked to describe what love feels like, the child is unable to describe it. In which of Piaget’s stages might this child be? Why?
2. Bill is contemplating his position in the world. He has recently retired after working for 40 years and is unsure what to do in his retirement. He dreads facing days with nothing to do, and he fears he may have nothing more to contribute in the world. In which of Erickson’s stages might he be? Why?
3. A young child awakes one morning and decides to pick out her own clothing. She is excited at the prospect of doing this independently without her mother’s help. She chooses her favorite plaid pants, one red sock, one purple sock and a turtleneck sweater (even though it is August). When she proudly comes downstairs to show her mother, her mother scowls at her. Her mother insists that they go back upstairs immediately so that the mother can pick out a more suitable outfit. In which of Erickson’s stages might the young child be? Why?
4. A woman is living in poverty and needs to find food for her two young children. While out one night, she finds the back door to a bakery has been left open and she enters the bakery. There are many loaves of bread on a shelf in the bakery. The woman knows that stealing is against the law, and so she leaves the bakery without taking any bread. In which of Kohlberg’s stages might this woman be? Why? What would Gilligan say?