Hypertension Case Study E.W.  is a 40-year old African American male

Hypertension Case Study


E.W.  is a 40-year old African American male, who has had difficulty controlling his HTN lately. He is visiting his primary care provider for a thorough physical examination and to renew a prescription to continue his blood pressure medication.



  • Father died at age 49 from AMI; had HTN
  • Mother has DM and HTN
  • Brother died at age 20 from complication of CF
  • Two younger sisters are A & W
  • PMH:

    • Chronic sinus infections
    • Hypertension for approximately 11 years
    • Pneumonia 6 years ago that resolved with antibiotic therapy
    • One major episode of major depressive illness caused by the suicide of his wife of 15 years, 5 years ago.
    • No surgeries
    • Allergies to Penicillin (Rash)



The patient is a widower and lives alone. He has a 15-year-old son who lives with a maternal aunt. He has not spoken with his son for four years. The patient is an air traffic controller at the local airport. He smoked cigarettes for approximately 10 years but stopped smoking when he was diagnosed with HTN.  He drinks “several beers every evening to relax” and does not pay particular attention to the sodium, fat or carbohydrate content of the foods that he eats. He admits to “salting almost everything he eats, sometimes even before tasting it.” He denies ever having dieted. He takes an occasional walk but has no regular daily exercise program.



  • Hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg PO QD
  • Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride 60 mg PO Q6hr prn
  • Beclomethasone dipropionate 1 spray into each nostril Q6 hr prn


Review of Systems:


  • States that his overall health has been fair to good during the past 12 months
  • Weight has increased by approximately 20 pounds during the last year
  • Denies chest pain, shortness of breath at rest, headaches, nocturia, nosebleeds, and hemoptysis
  • Reports some shortness of breath with activity, especially when climbing stairs, and that breathing difficulties are getting worse
  • Denies any nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or blood in the stool
  • Self-treats occasional right knee pain with OTC extra-strength acetaminophen
  • Denies any genitourinary symptoms


Physical Exam and Lab tests



The patient is an obese black man in no apparent distress. He appears to be his stated age.


Vital Signs:

BP: 155/96 sitting

HR: 73, regular

RR: 15, unlabored

Temp: 98.8 degrees F

Height: 5’11”

Weight: 221 lb

BMI: 31.




  • Tympanic membrane intact and clear throughout
  • No nasal drainage
  • No exudates or erythema in oropharynx
  • PERRLA, pupil diameter 3. mm bilaterally
  • Sclera without icterus
  • EOMI
  • Fundoscopy reveals mild arteriolar narrowing with no nicking, hemorrhages, exudates, or papilledema.

Supple without masses or bruits

Thyroid normal

Negative lymphadenopathy



Mild basilar crackles bilaterally

No wheezes




Prominent S3 sound

No murmurs or rubs




Soft and nondistended

Non tender with no guarding or rebound

No masses, bruits, or organomegaly

Normal bowel sounds




Normal size prostate without nodules or asymmetry

Heme negative stool

Normal penis and testes




Limited ROM right knee




No sensory or motor abnormalities

CNs II-XII intact

Negative Babinski


Muscle tone = 5/5 throughout


Laboratory tests

Na                      139meq/L RBC                    5.9mil/mm33 Mg                           2.4mg/dL
K                          3.9meq/L WBC                   7,100/mm3 P04                          3.9mg/dL
Cl                        102meq/L AST                   29 IU/L Uric acid                 7.3mg/dL
HCO3                  27 meq/L ALT                   43 IU/L Glu, fasting            110mg/dL
BUN                     17mg/dL ALK phos       123 IU/L T. Chol                 275mg/dL
Cr                          1.0mg/dL GGT               119 IU/L HDL                      31mg/dL
HgB                      16.9g/dL T. Bilirubin      0.9mg/dL LDL                     179mg/dL
Hct                         48% T. protein      6.0g/dL Trig                      290mg/dL
Plt                   235,000/mm3 Ca                  9.3mg/dL PSA                    1.3ng/mL


Urinalysis results:

Appearance- clear, amber in color

Specific gravity- 1.017

Ph- 5.3

Protein- negative


RBC- 0

WBC- 0

Bacteria- negative



Increased QRS voltage suggestive of LVH



Moderate LVH with EF = 46%