-SPACING OF ONE AND A HALF (1.5) BETWEEN SPACES
-LETTER SIZE (12)
-THE ESSAY SHOULD BE FROM 3-5 PAGES
-NO PLAGIARISM, ONLY ASSIGNED TEXT (SHOULD AT LEAST USE 2) BUT CAN USE AS MANY AS YOU NEED
-DO NOT USE INTERNET SOURCES !!!!
Discuss how the research in “phantom limbs” and “split-brain”, among other “anomalies”, has contributed in recognizing the function of specific neurological structures and the complex interaction between language, memory and consciousness. When elaborating your essay take into account the following:
1) Provide at least one (1) example, be it a clinical case or experiment, of each of the said neurological conditions (phantom limbs and split-brain). You could also, if you wish, provide other examples regarding amnesia, plasticity or the lateralization of cognitive functions.
2) Although research has shown specific structures related to cognitive functions (like the hippocampus in “memory processes”), bear in mind that it has also accentuated the impossibility of reducing language, memory, perception or consciousness to a single structure, region or group of neurons. Your discussion should reflect both of these views: a) one that is modular, specific and finds lateralization of a function; and b) another that sees cognition and the brain as a “holistic” and interactive system.
3) In this sense, define each of the cognitive functions (language, memory and consciousness), the main or probable neurological structures associated with them, and discuss how they are inter-related.
4) Use at least two (2) of the assigned texts to substantiate your discussion.
Assigned texts (in the order they were assigned):
Purves, D. et al. (2004). Memory. In Dale Purves, George J. Augustine, David Fitzpatrick,
William C. Hall, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O. McNamara & S. Mark Williams (Eds.), Neuroscience (733-754). Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
Kalat, J.W. (2009).Development and Plasticity of the Brain. In James W. Kalat, Biological
Psychology (139-149). Belmont: Wadsworth.
Kolb, B., Gibb, R. & Robinson, T.E. Brain Plasticity and Behavior. American Psychological
Society 12 (1): 1-5.
Ramachandran, V.S. (1998). The Phantom Within. In V.S. Ramachandran, Phantoms in the
Brain. Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind (1-20). New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.
Ramachandran, V.S. (1998). “Knowing Where to Scratch”. In V.S. Ramachandran, Phantoms in
the Brain. Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind (21-38). New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.
Pinel, J.P.L. (2000). Lateralization, Language and the Split Brain. In John P.J. Pinel,
Biopsychology (435-458). Boston: Ally & Bacon.
Gazzaniga, M. Forty-five years of split-brain research and still going strong. Nature
Reviews/Neuroscience 6 (2005): 653-659.
Roser, M. & Gazzaniga, M. (2004). Automatic Brains-Interpretive Minds. American
Psychological Society (13) 2, 56-59.
Searle, J. (1990). Is the Brain’s Mind a Computer Program. Scientific American 262 (1), 26-31.