NSTRUCTIONS: Respond to all posts; response to classmates should be thoughtful and advance the discussion, response should make and/or frequent informed references to unit material or scientific literature, follow APA style if resources are used, 75 word minimum in response per post
CLASSMATE POST #1
Three Obstetric PCS
10D00Z0 – This code specifies the extraction of ectopic and/or conception by natural or artificial opening. This code would be used for a woman having a (Walsh, 2010) or C-section. A C-section/cesarean typically takes 45 minutes to an hour. It may be done with a spinal block, where the woman is awake, or under general anesthesia. A urinary catheter is used to drain the bladder, and the skin of the abdomen is then cleaned with an antiseptic. An incision of about 15 cm (6 inches) is then typically made through the mother’s lower abdomen The uterus is then opened with a second incision and the baby delivered. The incisions are then stitched closed .
10907ZU – This code specifies drainage of amniotic fluid, diagnostic from POC, via Opening. This code is for amniocentesis, a diagnostic technique for withdrawing amniotic fluid from the uterine cavity using a needle via a transabdominal approach. Laboratory tests to evaluate fetal health can be performed on amniotic fluid since this fluid is largely composed of fetal substances: urine, secretions, exfoliated cells, and transudate (Quinlan 2008).
10D17Z9 – Manual Extraction of Retained POC, Via Opening. This involves the manual detachment of the retained placenta in vaginal birth (Chongsomchai, Lumbiganon, & Laopaiboon, 2014) from the implantation site by keeping the fingers tightly together and using the edge of the hand to gradually make a space between the placenta and the uterine wall. Proceed slowly all around the placental bed until the whole placenta is detached from the uterine wall.
Amniocentesis – is the process of obtaining amniotic fluid from the uterus for testing and treatment. During the procedure, a thin, hollow needle is inserted into the uterus and a small amount of fluid is extracted through a syringe. The ICD-10 PCS code is 10904ZU.
Cesarean Section – is a surgical procedure to deliver a baby by creating incisions through the abdomen and uterus. There are three different types of c-sections depending on how the surgeon makes the incision. They are high, low and extraperitoneal. Therefore, there are 3 code options for this procedure. Those code options are 10D00Z0, 10D00Z1, and 10D00Z2.
Natural Delivery – is the process of childbirth through the vaginal canal without assistance of vacuums or forceps. The ICD-10 PCS code for this is 10E0XZZ.
SC121: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
INSTRUCTIONS: Respond to all posts; response to classmates should be thoughtful and advance the discussion, response should make and/or frequent informed references to unit material or scientific literature, follow APA style if resources are used, 75 word minimum in response per post
CLASSMATE POST #3
Schwann Cells are glial cells in the peripheral nervous system that encircle axons. Schwann cells form a myelin sheath around a single axon or enclose 20 or more unmyelinated axons (Tortora & Derrickson, 2017). Schwann cells aid in nerve regeneration, nerve development, conduction of nervous impulses on the axon, support for neurons, involved in the production of nerve extracellular matrix, and influences neuromuscular synaptic activity. The nervous system relies on the myelin sheath for saltatory conduction (Science Beta, 2007).
Since Schwann cells assist regeneration of axons after an injury, there would be problems if they were destroyed or stopped working. The Schwann cell guides the axon in a tunnel towards its destination when there is an injury. Without these cells, damaged axons would not regenerate or reach their destination, meaning the neurons would not be able to communicate. If Schwann cells are attacked during immune disorder such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome, which is when the body’s immune system attacks the nervous cells, it will result in issues with the conduction of impulses (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2020).
Serotonin and the serotonin receptors are involved in almost all brain functions. Serotonin affects human behavior, and uncontrolled levels have been found as the cause of multiple neurological and psychiatric disorders. Serotonin has also been found to function organ systems in the body, such as endocrine and GI function, regulation of food consumption, and cardiovascular and pulmonary physiology (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2018).
I am somewhat familiar with nerve repair. The company I work for manufactures a biologic medical device to repair damaged nerves. Sometimes it is used with an allograft depending on the condition of the damaged nerve. Here is a link to one of the products. https://www.axogeninc.com/axoguard-nerve-connector/
The article I found discussed surgery procedures to repair damaged nerves. Also, it went over which nerve intervention had the best results. It included images from the surgeries too (Riccio, Marchesini, Pugliese, & De Francesco, 2019). I feel like nerve regeneration will be possible in my lifetime. I have seen nerve regeneration in the PNS. However, nerve regeneration in the CNS is a different story. But there are a lot of smart people out there doing some really innovative things, and hopefully in my lifetime I will see a person with a spinal cord injury experience nerve regeneration.
CLASSMATE POST #4
The Ependymal cells and according to Wolburg (2008), the function of these cells are to line the brain ventricles and are used as support. They also nourish and protect the brain and spinal cord. The Ependymal cells are very important for the brain, is they happen to be damaged or to be destroyed, they will not be able to provide their basic function, therefore the brain may be in hydrocephalus, which is a build-up of fluid in the ventricles of the brain causing impairment of brain function, Mayo Clinic (2019). Hydrocephalus can occur at any age but is more common in infants and people older than 60, and surgical treatment may be necessary to treat this issue, and physical therapy is often required to help regain issue that was associated with the brain function impairment caused by it.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is important in the nervous system, its primary function and goal are to be the messenger in the brain that makes cells communicate with each other. Dopamine is also responsible for movement, pleasure, attention, mood, and motivation, Perry (2015). Dopamine is such an important neurotransmitter of the nervous system.
Peripheral nerve regeneration in order to restore or repair damaged and injured nerves, such as the surgical treatment of skin nerve regeneration. Schwann cells are used for nerve regeneration as they are required to remove myelin debris, as it is the most important requirement for axonal regeneration since myelin contains molecules that inhibit axonal growth. I believe that nerve regeneration is amazing as it could change lives. I believe that today we have been able to aid nerve regeneration for nerve tissue damages, however, I believe that a more extensive nerve regeneration such as spinal cord nerves to help paralyzed patients walk again is yet to be successful, however, it would be an achievement and an amazing discovery.