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Nervous system is divided into 2 parts, CNS or central nervous system and PNS, peripheral nervous system. The central nervous center controls creativity expression, emotion thought, language, sleep, memory and personality (Falkner & Green, 2018). There are diseases and illnesses that can affect the CNS and PNS. One such issue is stroke. A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain or area of the brain is stopped by a rupture also known as hemorrhagic stroke or a thrombus or clot known as ischemic stroke. When blood flow is stopped, that area of the brain is deprived of oxygen. Once that happens brain cells start to die (Falkner & Green, 2018), This is also known as a CVA or cerebrovascular accident. Transient ischemic attack or TIA, happens when there is a temporary interruption of blood flow (Falkner & Green, 2018).The symptoms for this are a temporary weakness in either arm, leg or side of the body, loss of the ability to speak or memory loss (Falkner & Green, 2018). Every 4 minutes someone dies of a CVA, it is the leading cause of adult disability in the U.S, and up to 80% are preventable.
Signs and symptoms of stroke are: numbness or weakness in face or one side of the body, confusion and trouble speaking or understanding along with dizziness and severe headache and loss of or difficulty in vision (Falkner & Green, 2018).
Restoring function has many implications that depend on the disease or condition of the nervous system. Acute care of stroke involves stabilizing and aggressive treatment. Physical and occupational therapy is initiated along with speech therapy to restore function. Stroke recovery requires a change in the physical, social and emotional aspects of life. Patient and family may have the fear that another stroke will occur, this can place a stress on daily life. The nurse will need to educate the patient and family on signs and symptoms of stroke. There may be a need for modifying behavior and risk factors such as smoking cessation. The nurse can help by educating patient and family on medication awareness and compliance as well as diet and exercise. Community programs and case management along with social workers may need to be set up as well.