Using Surveillance to Address a Practice Problem

Using Surveillance to Address a Practice Problem

The health outcomes and effective distribution of the effects within the group of the population underpin population health. Epidemiology used information from surveillance in monitoring the burden of disease over time to determine changes in disease occurrence. And risk factors through the collection of health data over time. Thus, surveillance is crucial in addressing population health to improve health outcomes (Chamberlain College of Nursing, 2019).

This discussion will analyze mental disorders and specifically major depressive disorders (MDD). The discussion will explore surveillance data at the local and national level in addressing the issues of mental disorders. And the intervention needed to improve the population’s health. Data mining machine has potentially been helpful in the study of disease epidemiology, promoting advancement in disease control. In addition, the use of data collection on depression prevalence, morbidity, and mortality rates improves treatment specification and cost reduction (Jain &. Barot, 2018).

Identification of Information Hub and Topic Selected. Brief Summary of the Practice Problem.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) creates a depressed mood, loss of interest, and impairment in the individual’s everyday life (Jain &. Barot, 2018). MDD is identified as one of the common mental disorders globally. Nationally, and locally. MDD is recognized as the fourth leading cause of disability as measured by disability-adjusted life years. MDD is the second leading cause of death in 2020 due to suicide and comorbidity.  The impact of MDD on population health is enormous compared to heart disease, diabetes, and other physical illnesses. The economic impact is outstanding. Over 350 million people are affected globally. MDD impacts the quality of life and has a high mortality rate resulting from suicide (Gutierrez-Rojas et al., 2020; Tao et al., 2021; World Health Organization, 2019)‎.

Compare and Contrast National and State Levels Data. Using the State of One Residence as a Basis for the Comparison.

MDD affects seven percent population of the United States (U.S.)  in a year. An estimated 21.6 percent (42 million) of the U.S. population age 18 years. And over experienced depression between 2005 to 2008. In 2019, 20.6 percent of adults (51.5 million people) experienced mental illness in the U.S. Thus, the U.S. annual prevalence of depression is 7.8 percent. Over the past 11 years. National survey data indicated a 27 percent increase in the self-reported incidence of depression in age 40 to 59. In addition, there is under-reporting of an estimated seventy percent of major depressive cases in ages 65 and above adults (World Health Organization. (‎2019)‎.

There is a prediction of an increase in depression rate with covid-19. And an anticipated increase among the population with increasing life expectancy. There is a prediction that MDD will be the second leading disease burden in 2030 as measured in disability-adjusted life years. MDD comorbidity with other physical diseases increased morbidity and mortality rate.  Approximately 46 percent of people who die by suicide had a diagnosis of a mental disorder. At the national level, ninety percent of death from suicide are people who have shown symptoms of depression or some other mental illness. The annual prevalence of suicide is 4.8 percent in adults, 11.8 percentage in age 18 to 25, and 18.8 percent in high school students (National Alliance of Mental Illness {NAMI},2021).

The unemployment rate is higher among adults in the U.S. with mental illness (5.8 percent). In the U.S., the financial burden from MDD from 2005 to 2015 was 210.5 billion dollars. The cost was from the economic burden from treatment, disability claims, workplace absenteeism, and suicide-related (Kauffman et al., 2021).

Comparison and Contrasting of Depression at National Level and California

Approximately 11.0 percent of adolescents ages 12-17 in 2013 to 2014 have depressive episodes at the national level compared to 11.5 percent of California. In addition, the annual average of treatment of depression among adolescents at the national level (38.6 percent) was higher than in California (30.5 percent) between 2010 to 2014 (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration {SAMHSA}, 2015).

Depression is one of the most common mental disorders. An estimated six percent of California adults experience MDD between 2011 to 2015, close to two million individuals in the California population.  Between 2017 to 2018, approximately 5.2 percent (1.6 million) of Californians reported their mental health treatment needs. Were unmet in the past year compared to the national level, with about 5.6 percent (13.8 million). Between 2013-2014, the rate of severe mental illnesses in California was 3.8 percent compared to the national level with an estimation of 4.2 percent.

Between 2014 to 2015, estimated adults ages 18 and above had suicidal thoughts, about 3.9 percent at the national level and 3.8 percent in California. In addition, 36.9 percent of age 18 and above in California received treatment/therapy within a year of diagnosis compared to 42.7 percent annual average at the national level between 2010-2014. In 2014, 79.4 percent of age 21 to 64 were not in the labor force due to mental disorders (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration {SAMHSA}, 2015).

Describing How Data from One Home State Compares to Data from the Other States.

The statistical analysis of depression is greatly affected by ethnicity. In the state of California, depression is highest among the Native Americans. About 13.4 percent of the population of California’s native indicated experiencing the major depressive disorder. The Pacific Islanders ranked number two (11.7 percent). The data stated Asian Americans (6.6 percent) and Caucasians (8.3 percent) are below average. Environmental and societal factors are essential factors to be considered in which some populations are affected by depression. In California estimated 3.8 percent of all adults per year in 2013-2014, age 18 and above, have experienced severe mental illness (Johnson, 2020).

In comparing California to other states, California ranked number 48 for depression rate (9.17 percent). Oregon State ranked number one (17.7 percent) from analyzes data from the Centers for Disease Control. And Prevention on depression rate over five years from 2014-2018 and the change in depression rates from 2014-2018. The percentage change denotes which state has experienced an increase or decrease in depression rates. The estimated depression rate in Oregon, a neighboring state to California, is 25.20 percent, with a percentage change of 9.17 percent. The overall depression rate in the individual States is from the people who indicated they were diagnosed with some form of depression (Johnson, 2020).