Immunizations are heralded as one of the 20th century’s most cost-effective public health achievements.  Immunizations protect both individuals and the larger population, especially those people who have immune system disorders and cannot be vaccinated.

School Requirements

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)Links to an external site. recommends vaccine schedules for children, adolescents and adults based on scientific evidence and the benefits of preventing infectious diseases. All school requirement laws are state-basedLinks to an external site. and usually reflect the recommendations of the ACIPLinks to an external site.. It is important to note that some states give the state health officer or department of health the authority to change school requirements through administrative ruleLinks to an external site.. Others revise school requirements through a combination of rules and legislation or strictly by legislative action. 


States have implemented a variety of laws and rules on immunization requirements. Although immunization requirements vary from state to stateLinks to an external site., all states allow exemptions for medical reasons, and almost all states (except California, Mississippi and West Virginia) grant religious or philosophical exemptions for people who have sincerely held beliefs that prohibit immunizations.  Currently, 29 states and DC have a religious exemption law and 18 states have a religious and philosophical exemption law. These laws allow parents to claim an exemption based on their personal, moral or other beliefs.

Write a brief three to four page paper answering the questions below (plus a title and reference page).

  1. In the state you were born / what are the immunization requirements? (15 points)
  2. What exemptions does this state have for medical, philosophical, and religious beliefs? (15 points)
  3. Discuss your view on your states immunization requirements and exceptions (include three research articles supporting your view). (30 points)
  4. Design a policy you would like to purpose that would improve immunization requirements and protect the health of vulnerable populations while respecting personal exemptions. (20 points)
  5. Should the Covid vaccine be mandatory?  Should it be mandated for everyone or certain professions?  What are the legal and ethical issues that surround this dilemma? (20 points)


Scholarly Project #2